Monday, 1 October 2012

The Indefinite Form. The Present Indefinite. The Past Indefinite. The Future In definite. The Future Indefinite in the Past.



The Indefinite form

Present Simple


 Intermediate

I

1. Permanent or long-lasting situations
The store opens at 9 o'clock.


2. Regular habits and daily routines
When do they usually have lunch?

3. Facts
Water doesn't boil at 20 degrees.

4. Feelings
What do you like? I don't want to live in Texas.

5. Opinions and states of mind
He doesn't agree with you.


6. Timetables and schedules
When do courses begin this semester?


7. Common present time expressions include:
usually, always, often, sometimes, on Saturdays, at weekends (on weekends US English), rarely, on occasion, never, seldom

Structure

1. Positive
We add an 's' to the base form of the 3rd person singular.
If the verb ends in -y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -ies.
I, You, We, They -> eat lunch at noon.
He, She, It -> works well in any situation.

2. Negative
The helping verb 'do'
I, You, We, They -> don't enjoy opera.
He, She, It -> doesn't belong to the club.

3. Questions
The helping verb 'do'
Do -> I, you, we, they -> work in this town?
Does -> he, she, it -> live in this city?

II
Simple present tense with 'be'

Positive

Positive Short Form
I am
I'm
you are
you're
he is
he's
she is
she's
it is
it's
we are
we're
they are
they're

Negative
Negative short form
I am not
I'm not
you are not
you aren't
he is not
he isn't
she is not
she isn't
it is not
it isn't
we are not
we aren't
they are not
they aren't

Yes / No Questions
am I ?
are you ?
is he ?
is she ?
is it ?
are we ?
are they ?

Wh Questions
where
am I ?
what
are you ?
why
is he ?
who
is she ?
when
are we ?
how
are they ?


Present Simple 

Advanced


1. Repeated Actions
Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens.
Examples:
·                    Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.

2. Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. I
Examples:
·                    California is in America.

3. Scheduled Events in the Near Future
Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation.
Examples:
·                    The party starts at 8 o'clock.

4. Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now.
Examples:
·                    Do you have your passport with you?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
·                    Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
·                    Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

 Past Simple


Intermediate

Form
Positive and negative
I
You
She/He/It
We
They
lived
didn't live
in Lothersdale
left
didn't leave
Question
Where
did
I
You
She/He/It
We
They
work?

Remember

a) If the verb contains only one syllable, with the pattern one vowel + one consonant you double the consonant.

robbed skipped stopped planned

b) If the verb ends in '-y' or '-w' the the consonant is not doubled.
played showed

c) If the verb is two syllables and the stress is on the second the syllable then the end consonant.

ad'mitted com'mitted pre'ferred un'plugged

d) Verbs ending in a consonant + '-y' change the '-y' to '-i'

buried carried harried
Use

1. A finished action in the past.
·                    Abel Tasman discovered Fiji in 1643.

2. Consecutive actions in a narrative.
·                    Mary crept in the room as quiet as a mouse. She threw back the curtains. What did she see? Mary didn't believe her eyes but there in front of her was her husband with.....

3. Action of habit
·                    When I was a child I lived in the countryside. I took the dog for a walk when I arrived home from school. Every Saturday we swam at the local pool where I was taught by Mr. Weber.

Past Simple


Advanced

1. Simple past form
Regular verbs: base+ed
e.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped
Simple Past: be, have, do:
Subject
Verb
Be
Have
Do
I
was
had
did
You
were
had
did
He,she, it
was
had
did
We
were
had
did
You
were
had
did
They
were
had
did

Affirmative
1.                 I was in Japan last year
2.                 She had a headache yesterday.
3.                 We did our homework last night.

Simple past, regular verbs

Affirmative
Subject
verb
+ ed

I
washed

Negative
Subject
did not
infinitive without to
They
didn’t
visit …
Interrogative
Did
subject
infinitive without to
Did
she
arrive…?
Interrogative negative
Did not
subject
infinitive without to
Didn’t
you
like..?
Example:
to walk
, simple past.
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
I
walked
I didn’t walk
Did I walk?
You
walked
You didn’t walk
Did you walk?
He,she,it
walked
He didn’t walk
Did he walk?
We
walked
We didn’t walk
Did we walk?
You
walked
You didn’t walk
Did you walk?
They
walked
They didn’t walk
Did they walk?
2. Simple past, function
The simple past
is used to talk about a completed action in a time before
now
. Duration is not important.
·                    John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
You always use the simple past when you say when something happened,
so it is associated with certain past time expressions
Examples:
·                    frequency:often,sometimes, always;

Future Simple


Intermediate

The structure of the future simple tense is:


subject
+
auxiliary verb WILL
+
main verb

invariable

base
will
V1

For negative sentences in the future simple tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb

subject
auxiliary verb

main verb

+
I
will

open
the door.
+
You
will

finish
before me.
-
She
will
not
be
at school tomorrow.
-
We
will
not
leave
yet.
?
Will
you

arrive
on time?
?
Will
they

want
dinner?

When we use the future simple tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:
I will
I'll
you will
you'll
he will
she will
it will
he'll
she'll
it'll
we will
we'll
they will
they'll

For negative sentences in the future simple tense, we contract with won't, like this:
I will not
I won't
you will not
you won't
he will not
she will not
it will not
he won't
she won't
it won't
we will not
we won't
they will not
they won't

No Plan
We use the future simple tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking.
·                    We will see what we can do to help you.
In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of speaking.
We often use the future simple tense with the verb to think before it:
·                    I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.

Prediction
We often use the future simple tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen.
·                    Who do you think will get the job?

Be
When the main verb is be, we can use the future simple tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking.
·                    I'm going shopping. I won't be very long.

Способ образования Simple Future с Be Going To
am / is / are + going to + глагол
Например:
You are going to meet Jane tonight.
Ты встретишься с Джейн сегодня вечером.

Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
Ты встретишься с Джейн сегодня вечером?

You are not going to meet Jane tonight.
Ты не встретишься с Джейн сегодня вечером.

Future Simple


Advanced

USE 1 - "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help.
Examples:
B: I'll make some sandwiches.
·                    A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.
·                    A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.

USE 2 - "Will" to Express a Promise
"Will" is usually used in promises.
Examples:
·                    I will call you when I arrive.
·                    I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.

USE 3 - "Be going to" to Express a Plan
"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future.
Examples: 
 A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM
A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE - 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction
Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore.
Examples:
·                    The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
·                    The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
·                    John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
·                    The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive

Future Simple in the Past

Intermediate

Therу is no difference in russian, though it occures in English.

Он знал, что она выйдет за него замуж. 
Он знает, что она выйдет за него замуж.

 
He knows that she will marry him.
He knew that she would marry him.

Future - Future-in-the-Past
Shall - Should
Will - Would

Positive
I thought that we should go there together. - Я подумала, что мы должны идти туда вместе.
They hoped that they would win the game. - Они надеялись, что они выиграют игру.
She promised we'd spend the holiday together. - Она пообещала, что мы проведем каникулы вместе. (Should и Would могут образовывать краткие формы).

The use of the modal verb - would 
I would like a glass of beer, please.

Negative sentences
Mary felt that Jack would not understand her. - Мэри почувствовала, что Джек ее не поймет.
The children knew that I shouldn't punish them. - Дети знали, что я их не накажу.

Future Simple in the past


Advanced

USE - 1 Future in Past
Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.
Examples:
·                    I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action
REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past.
Examples:
·                    I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct
·                    I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
·                    I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
·                    I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive


The Elementary Group of Exercises - 21

Exercises on Present Simple:






7. Seven (Choose the correct form of the verb)

Exercises on Past Simple:











Exercises on Past Simple:






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